Saturday, May 23, 2020

Essay on Nike Case Study - 743 Words

1. A decision to retain an in-house arm of agency Weiden amp; Kennedy by Nike exemplify the concept of organizational design by allowing Nike use the agency’s creative designers to focus solely on Nike work, giving them un-parallel access to executives, researchers and anyone else who might provide Nike advertisers with their next inspiration for marketing greatness before listening to any other organization. Having the agency in the building is having them at their disposal at anytime they need them and also the agency will have to consider them first incase of any new ad or good idea discovered by the agency or when Nike needs to salvage a problem with the help of the agency. Thus, the agency at their finger-tips serves great advantages†¦show more content†¦Nike would have known the right factories to outsource to instead of using factories that fail to meet their standards. 3. Fig. 1 shows what Nike network structure looks like, Mark Parker (CEO) reports to the Board of Directors and in return almost every manager/worker reports directly to him when the need arises. Nike is a divisional company but retains some functional departments as well. The brands Nike sells comprise many of the divisions of the company. Apparel for Nike brand, Converse, and Jordan brands are examples of some divisions created around specific products. Functional departments such as Nike design and investor relations are also part of Nike’s organizational structure. Nike‘s vertical structure includes CEO Mark Parker and a board of directors chaired by co-founder Phil Knight. Although Nike has functional divisions and divisions based on specific products it is not a matrix organization. In a matrix organization, employees report to a functional and divisional manage. At Nike, employees report to the divisional manager and the president of each division reports directly to the CEO. Nike’s continued product innovation and successful marketing are due to the combination of functional and divisional organization using an operations department to insure communication between divisions. There is division of labor but it is not clearly identified. With a more pronounced division of labor and levels of direct supervision Nike can improve itsShow MoreRelatedNike Case Study1004 Words   |  5 PagesRSS Case Study: E-recruitment gets Nike on track Posted by HR Zone in Strategies on Thu, 09/12/2004 - 16:54 0 inShare The Nike employer brand is extremely powerful in attracting potential talent to the business making the process of handling applications and supporting the resourcing process effectively and efficiently critical to business success; implementing e-recruitment was identified as the way to solve this businesses hiring problems. The issue Nike currently receives aroundRead MoreNike Case Study1112 Words   |  5 PagesCase Study- Nike 1. Discuss how Nikes growth can be attributed to its targeting of diverse market global segments. In the 1960’s Nike was only making running shoes. At this point in time not many people knew of Nike or the Nike swoosh. In order to increase brand awareness, they started paying athletes to wear their shoes. However, very soon Nike learnt that in order to be a global brand they needed to appeal to different market segments, not just athletes. Hence, they then decided to tapRead MoreNike Case Study1494 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction: This paper is a case study of Nike Inc. I will give a brief overview of the history, products, company goals, company challenges, financial report and sourcing strategies. My main sources of information are internet databases, company annual reports, and financial articles. Company Overview: Nike Nike incorporated, the worlds leading designer and marketer of authentic athletic footwear, apparel, equipment, and accessories for a wide variety of sports and fitness activitiesRead MoreCase Study Nike765 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Amanda Merkatz Management 301-02 Case Study 11 11252895 1. How does Nike’s decision to retain an in-house arm of ad agency Wieden Kennedy exemplify the concept of organizational design? The decision to retain an in-house arm of ad agency exemplify the concept of organizational design, makes you look at how both companies interpret organizational design. Organizational design is the process of creating structures that accomplish the company’s missions and objectives. First looking at the textRead MoreCase Study on Nike1252 Words   |  6 PagesCase Study Nike Introduction Good morning ladies and gentlemen and thank for taking the time to meet with us. Nike was founded on January 25, 1964 as Blue Ribbon Sports by Bill Bowerman and Philip Knight. The company officially became Nike, Inc. on May 30, 1978. Nike has various products which include footwear as well as other apparel that compliment the former. This accounts for 92 percent of the company’s revenue. The other 8 percent comes from equipment and non Nike brand products, such as ColeRead MoreNike Case Study1779 Words   |  8 PagesNike Case Study Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements For Master of Business Administration Degree Tiffin University at University of Bucharest Information and Decision Support Course By Ciprian Jitaru Instructor: Prof. John J. Millar Ph.D. Dean Emeritus and Professor of Management Cohort 9 November 06, 2010 1. What external and internal pressures did Mark Parker face when he assumed the leadership of Nike, and how did he respond to this challenges? Read MoreNike Case Study1104 Words   |  5 PagesCase Study- Nike 1. Discuss how Nikes growth can be attributed to its targeting of diverse market global segments. In the 1960’s Nike was only making running shoes. At this point in time not many people knew of Nike or the Nike swoosh. In order to increase brand awareness, they started paying athletes to wear their shoes. However, very soon Nike learnt that in order to be a global brand they needed to appeal to different market segments, not just athletes. Hence, they then decided to tap moreRead MoreNike Case Study899 Words   |  4 PagesCorporation Case Study: Nike What is it? NIKE, Inc. is the world’s leading innovator in athletic footwear, apparel, equipment and accessories. Before there was the Swoosh, before there was Nike, there were two visionary men who pioneered a revolution in athletic footwear that redefined the industry. Nike Employees Nike Employee Networks are designed to help Nike move toward greater diversity. In the U.S., six employee networks focus attention on important communities within Nike. The intendedRead MoreNike Case Study5183 Words   |  21 PagesNike Case Study The US-based Nike Corporation announced that it had generated profits of $97.4 million, around $48 million below its earlier forecast for the third quarter ended February 28, 2001. The company said that the failure in the supply chain software installation by i2 Technologies3 was the cause of this revenue shortfall. This admission of failure also affected the companys reputation as an innovative user of technology. The supply chain software implementation was the first part ofRead MoreNike Case Study1542 Words   |  7 Pagesin the stocks of Nike for the fund that she manages. †¢ Ford should base her decision on data on the company which were disclosed in the 2001 fiscal reports. While Nike management addressed several issues that are causing the decrease in market sales and prices of stocks, management presented its plans to improve and perform better. †¢ Third party sources also gave their opinions on whether the stock was a sound investment. WACC CALCULATION: Cost of Capital Calculations: Nike Inc Cohen calculated

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Future For National Security - 1496 Words

As the world moves forward, there are new threats that arise and it is difficult to handle each one. One of the largest threats to any country are cyber-attacks/computer hacking. Each day on the news there is a developing story about a country’s data base being hacked by an anonymous source and all the classified files were exposed to the public. As a result, cybersecurity has increased significantly in the countries that can afford it. The United States and China have recently increased spending and research on cybersecurity to protect their classified documents. Unfortunately, as technology evolves, there are new ways for both countries to get hacked once again. Cybersecurity is the future for national security and must be updated each†¦show more content†¦Causing mistrust with the international community. China’s cybersecurity defenses has had many flaws in protecting their internet. Since China is solely focusing on international cyber-attacks, it leaves th em vulnerable within their borders. The Chinese police barely investigate internal hacking which attributes to China’s vulnerability. Chinese cybercriminals target Chinese victims given the relatively low risk of domestic police action; stolen usernames and passwords, financial data, video game accounts, and hacker tools can be bought and sold openly on Chinese social media forums. According to Jon Lindsay’s article, this form of cyber-attack damaged the Chinese economy $830 million in 2011 alone. Since then China has begun cyber policies and created the Cybersecurity and Informatization Leading Group in 2014, chaired by Xi Jinping. The CILG aids XI’s efforts to tighten Party discipline and respond to foreign cyber-attacks. Having the government aims their sights on cyber defense may actually improve cyber policy coordination but the Chinese Government doesn’t have prior experience in cyber policy. In other countries, private sector companies and organiz ations that focus of cyber policy are hired by the government. So China has tightened their laws on internet freedoms because they believe that allowing internet freedom undermines Chinese cybersecurity. In 2011

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Road to Hell Free Essays

Road to Hell 1. The Summary. The case â€Å"Road to Hell† by Gareth Evans is a story of two characters with different backgrounds, personalities and points of view and how these two characters interact. We will write a custom essay sample on Road to Hell or any similar topic only for you Order Now John Baker is a successful western chief engineer of the Barracania’s branch of a multinational company who was promoted to production manager of Keso Mining Corporation near Winnipeg. That’s why he had to assign his successor. Baker has been working to prepare Matt Rennalls to be his successor in the chief engineer’s position. Rennalls, on the other hand, is a young engineer who represents the new generation of patriotic, well-educated Barracania’s professionals. The last meeting between two characters ended up badly. Instead of accepting the chief engineer position, Matt turns in his resignation, insulted by John’s interview. 2. The Problem. This case is the example of how people from different cultures do not take diversity into consideration. They evaluate and measure each other by their own scales and perceptions, which often lead to serious misunderstanding and conflicts. Misunderstanding causes worse work productivity. 3. The Cast of Characters. John Baker is a successful western chief engineer of the Barracania’s branch of a multinational company. In the case it is mentioned that  John  Baker is an English expatriate, so we assume that he is white, possibly born in Canada. Baker thinks he has an edge in working in a foreign country because he has experience in understanding a regional staff’s psychology and knowing exactly how to get along with locals. Matthew Rennalls is a young engineer who represents the new generation of patriotic, well-educated Barracania’s professionals. His four years as a student at London University made him especially sensitive to political, racial and equality issues involving relations between his culture and western influence. 4. The Chronology. Matthew Rennals writes an angry latter with proposal of his resignation. * John Baker and Matthew Rennals have the interview. * John Baker consider the appointment Matthew Rennals as his successor * John Baker is promoted to production manager of Keso Mining Corporation near Winnipeg * John Baker works as chief engineer of the Caribbean Bauxite Company of Barracam’a in the West Indies 5. The Issues. The main barrier to the problem solving is misunderstanding be tween people with different nationalities and cultures. Baker knew a lot about Matt’s  political views, racial issues sensitivity and intolerance to any discrimination of value of his country and people in the world arena. However, he still made a mistake building his interview from his own perspective. Baker  gave some historical and personal suggestions that were not meant to be offensive. However,  from Matt’s point of view, the suggestions were totally inappropriate. Through the interview, Baker emphasized several times the importance and leading position of European staff in the company. How to cite Road to Hell, Essay examples

Friday, May 1, 2020

The Civilian Conservation Corps Essay Example For Students

The Civilian Conservation Corps Essay Ccc The hardships of the Great Depression of the early part of the twentieth century lead to many drastic decisions by our countries leaders on how to deal with the problem. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United States at the time, decided to infiltrate the country with government money to create jobs and better the country as a whole. The Civilian Conservation Corps Essay, or CCC created many of these jobs. The Civilian Conservation Corps took in unmarried men from ages eighteen to twenty-five and moved them to the wilderness to work. They planted trees, built parks, fought soil erosion, and preformed timber culturing (Davidson 718). The Civilian Conservation Corps set up camps all over the country with many of them right here in the western part of Virginia. There were eight different camps in the Shenandoah Valley. Seeing as the Shenandoah Valley, specifically Staunton is where I am from, I wish to focus on the three camps that were located within Augusta County. North River, West Augusta, and Sherando were the names of the three camps located within Augusta County. North River Camp, also known as Mount Solon Camp, was first established on May 31, 1933 by one hundred eighty-six men. These men first had to create a clearing for the camp and establish living quarters. They built nineteen different buildings for Jennings 2 uses such as recreation, dining, worship, storage and sleep. The camp men built many of the surrounding areas attractions. These men developed an intricate maze of fire roads, horseback trails and timber paths for future development of the National Forest in that area of Augusta County. Another accomplishment of this particular camp was the cleaning up of Staunton Dam, or Elkhorn Lake. This lake supplied the camp and Staunton with its water and had been contaminated by erosion. The men spent considerable time fixing the erosion problem and beautifying the area into a wilderness attraction. Now many families still retreat to this lake for picnics and camping trips. The West Augusta Camp was located further into the wilderness than the North River Camp or the Sherando Camp. The West Augusta Camp men spent most of their time constructing roads throughout the underdeveloped and extremely impoverished area. Being surrounded by the George Washington National Forrest, the men also did many timber culturing; tree plantings, and timber stand improvements. This area was an extremely wet area so they constructed many fish dams for the production of trout. This camp was quite active and production was well noted. They completed 28.5 miles of roads over the Appalachian Mountain range, built and maintained three fire towers on three different mountains, constructed two new hiking trails, flooding control, improved fish habitat, roadside pull offs on Shenandoah Mountain, and road and trail signs. The West Augusta Camp was considered one of the Civilian Conservation Corps best camps in the United States. Many of the structures that were constructed and all of the trails and towers are still standing and used to this day. In fact the area is now call Jennings 3 Ramseys Draft and the highways they built are considered one of the most beautiful to visit during the fall foliage. The final Civilian Conservation Corps camp located in Augusta County was named Sherando Camp. This camp was established on May 15, 1933 and was manned by one hundred fifty-two enrollees. Approximately ninety percent of the work done by this camp was road construction of some sort. The other ten percent of the work was done on a recreational lake to be named Sherando Lake. The lakes dam required thirty thousand cubic yards of fill. .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30 , .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30 .postImageUrl , .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30 , .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30:hover , .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30:visited , .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30:active { border:0!important; } .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30:active , .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30 .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf5da19e1e58da5c6b6cf35491594df30:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Career Goals And The Code Of Ethics Essay The lake was to be twenty-five acres in area and around fifty feet deep at its deepest point. They also constructed streambeds, telephone lines, sewer system, water system, parking lots and buildings for the Sherando Lake site. Today Sherando Lake is one of the biggest wilderness tourist attractions in the Augusta County area because of its beauty and remoteness. .

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Selective Female Fetus Killing free essay sample

Female Fetus Killing Picture this, you are at the doctors and you have just found out that you are pregnant, so many ideas and feelings will run through your body. However, not all people react with excitement in most third world countries this can either be a happy moment or the dawn before the pain. At the beginning of history you can see that infanticide has been carried out. From prehistoric times to the times of many great empires, the deaths of infants were accepted as a way to regulate the population. Many families left the decision to the father as to whether or not they kept the child or left it by the side if the rode in hopes a civilian would rescue the infant. This paper will focus on the female infanticide being practiced in India. Female infanticide refers to the intentional killing of the female fetus or infant females with the hopes of someday having a son that will benefit the family. We will write a custom essay sample on Selective Female Fetus Killing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The difference that this paper will look at is why the families choose to selectively kill their female offspring versus their male. The major problem associated with selective killing of the female falls with the lack of women to marry the abundance of males in the country. Moreover, the selective killing of the female fetus show the lack of status a female holds in third world countries. The question would be how do women in third world countries commit this horrific crime. It is easier than we think the support from the doctors and the lack of punishment by governmental officials make this gendercide the norm in several third world countries. The doctors found that they can make a money profit by performing amniocentesis testing for women who wanted to know the gender of their unborn child. According to Karlekar, M. (1993), states that after the parents find out the gender of the unborn child they make a decision on whether or not they will keep the child. The women are often times ridiculed for producing female children and can be disowned by their husbands if they fail to produce a male child. Therefore, these women often go to the doctors alone to find out the sex of the baby and if the child is to be born a female the women will leave and with the help of older women in the village to perform abortions of the fetus. Female infanticide is considered to be one of the most brutal and destructive forms of sexual bias, which relates closely to sex selective abortions. The fact that the female fetuses are aborted more often than males is because most of the third world countries are patriarchal. According to Bhatnagar, R. , Dube, R. and Dube, R. 2005), twelve million girls are born every year in India, however only nine million will survive to age fifteen years old. The reality of the situation is that the female embryo, infant, girl or women is in danger her whole life in India. The authors also pointed out that one of the major reasons the women cite as to why they commit the crime is to prevent their poor families from paying relatively high dowry amounts to husband of their daughters. Yet the research done by the author shows that the average family that participates in the female infanticide owns land and has a substantial amount of money. The cause of the gendercide is based loosely on the low status of the women in India. The parents who choose to kill their female child often feel justified that they are securing a future for themselves in old age. Males are often the ones who work out in the towns as sales men and sharecroppers and are paid to marry others daughters. While these all seem like good to the outside world in reality the women are capable of preforming all of these minus getting a dowry for marriage. However, the parents feel that because once the female is married she moves away and is now part of her husband’s family leaving her family to fend for themselves. The opposite is true for the males they will forever be a part of their families. However, this does not justify the fact that the parents are making a selfish decision when killing female fetuses. How female infanticide affects males in India? The male to female ratio in India is drastically uneven. According to Jones, A. (2002), in 1991 there were 992 girls to every 1000 boys in rural India. This number continues to decrease leaving the males with fewer choices of females to marry. The males are often even fed first and medical care is definitely more prevalent for males. Because there is a shortage of females often times many males will go unmarried and many families with female children will have to pay a high amount for the dowry. Although the selective fetal abortion is illegal in India many males encourage their wives to participate in the practices and the government never prosecutes the women. In conclusion, female infanticide is a horrible manifestation of the anti-female bias. This infanticide will continue to destroy third world countries until the government takes this gendercide serious. Even with the advancement of technologically female infanticide has continued to advance with doctors using it as a profit market. If the doctors and government do not educate the families about the effects of the brutal practices the numbers will continue to decrease. We also have to take into consideration that in order to combat the phenomenon, we have to carefully consider the location and specific and cultural factors leading to the practice.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Essay on Solubility FLR

Essay on Solubility FLR Essay on Solubility FLR I. Which Solute Is More Soluable? II. Introduction: Question: Which two substances (sodium chloride and sodium nitrate) have the most solubility? Hypothesis: If we dissolve the two substances separately in water, then the sodium chloride will dissolve more because the ions in the solid is so strong that only highly polar solvents like water dissolve the sodium chloride well (NaCl). Background Information: Solubility: the rate at which a solute dissolves in a solvent. Saturated: contains as much as can be dissolved in the solvent. Solute: substances that are dissolved in the solvent. Solvent: heterogeneous mixture in which particles are dispersed through a fluid but not dissolved in it. NaCl: (Sodium Chloride) Represents 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride The attraction between the NA+ and the Cl- ions in the solid is so strong that only highly polar solvents like water dissolve NaCl well. When dissolved in water, the sodium chloride framework disintegrates as the Na+ and Cl- ions become surrounded by the polar water molecules. The chloride ions are strongly solvated, each being surrounded by an average of 6 molecules of water. NaNo3: (Sodium Nitrate) White solid, very soluable in water Sodium nitrate is also synthesized industrially by neutralizing nitric acid with sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate Sodium nitrate was used extensively as a fertilizer and a raw material for the manufacture of gunpowder in the late 19th century. ****(Information for Sodium Chloride and Sodium Nitrate came from Wikipedia) III. Materials/Illustration: Test Tubes (2-4) Rubber Stoppers (2-4) 10 ml H2O (cold tap water) Graduated Cylinder Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Sodium Nitrate (NaNo3) Test Tube Holder/Rack Scale (Electronic Balance) Scoops Pipette (optional) IV. Variables Independent (manipulated) The substances: Sodium Chloride (NaCl) and Sodium Nitrate (NaNo3) Dependent (responding) Grams of Solute Constant (control) Amount of H2O (water), Amount of shakes (80 shakes) V. Procedures: 1. Gather materials (from the materials list) 2. Set up lab on a flat surface as shown in the diagram/illustration. 3. Use the scale (electronic balance; already tared) to weight the container of the Sodium Chloride (NaCl). 4. Record the mass of the container into your data table under â€Å"Initial Mass† for Sodium Chloride. 5. Fill the graduated cylinder with exactly 10 ml. of cold tap water from the sink. After, record the volume into your data table under â€Å"Volume†. 6. Pour the contents (10ml. cold tap water) from the graduated cylinder into one of the test tubes. 7. Using the scoop/scooper, place 2-3 scoops of the Sodium Chloride into the test tube. 8. Use the rubber stopper to cover the top of the test tube. 9. Holding your thumb or finger over the rubber stopper, shake the test tube 80 times. 10. Check the test tube to see if the Sodium Chloride has dissolved by holding the test tube horizontally and rolling it to see if there are any particles left. 11. Repeat steps #7 - #10 until the substance inside the test tube becomes saturated. Meaning, that it contains as much Sodium Chloride as can be dissolved in water. (the Sodium Chloride can no longer be dissolved in the solvent and small particles/grains start to show) 12. Once your substance is saturated, take the container of your Sodium Chloride and place it on the scale (electronic balance; already tared). 13. Record the mass of the container into your data table under â€Å"Final Mass†. 14. Repeat steps #3 - #13 for 2 more trials. 15. Once you are done with all three trials for the Sodium Chloride, Repeat steps #3 – 13 for Sodium Nitrate. VI. Observations and Data: Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Trials

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

What is a Case Study & The Techniques In Active Reading Essay

What is a Case Study & The Techniques In Active Reading - Essay Example Historical Significance: the Case study is not a new trend. It goes back to 1829 when Frederic Le Play first introduced this methodology of testing hypotheses. However, in the current day world, the popularity of case study method is increasing day by day. This methodology is commonly used in social science subjects like sociology, psychology, and anthropology for educational evaluation. In business and legal education, these case studies are most often used as teaching methods for professional development. Furthermore, in the field of medicine, this methodology is used by physicians where they want to collect and share data or information. So, the purpose of the case study, as a research strategy, is to investigate a factor happening within its real context or we can say case study offers more thorough analysis of the situation. It is an analytical piece that involves heavy research and application of concepts, knowledge, and theories. Case studies rely on quantitative evidence, multiple sources of facts and data that further benefit in the development of theoretical proposals. When we talk about case study writing, we can see that there are three major steps including research, analysis and finally the actual writing. The research phase can be completed through libraries and internet and by interviewing people. Secondly, all the information gathered from various sources including articles, books, and people, is organized to highlight the focus of study and thoroughly analyzed. Finally, the case is written. When we talk about case studies, we can see that case study text is of prior importance in case study writing. The text is a collection of written words. Remember, a single word sounds nothing until or unless it becomes the part of a text. Text lies within a situation that offers it a unique meaning.